Summa (Quaestiones ordinariae) art. LXIII-LXVII

Henry of Ghent, edited by Gordon Wilson, Girard Etzkorn, and Bernd Goehring, and assisted by Linda N. Etzkorn

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Critical edition of articles 63–67 of Henry’s Summa on personal identity, equality and similitude

Theologian and Scholastic philosopher Henry of Ghent (d. 1293) could arguably be considered the most significant thinker of the last quarter of the 13th century. His works remained influential well into the Renaissance.

The critical edition of articles 63–67 of Henry’s Quaestiones ordinariae (Summa) *is dedicated to the subjects discussed in his lectures held at the University of Paris, namely the common relations within the Trinity. These articles were composed around 1290. In them, Henry explores topics such as personal identity, equality and similitude, as well as their opposites: diversity, inequality and dissimilitude.
Articles 63–67 were distributed by the University of Paris in two successive exemplars divided into *peciae
. Manuscripts copied from each exemplar have survived. The text of the critical edition has been established based on the reconstructed texts of these two exemplars.

This volume will be of interest to those engaged in the study of theology, philosophy, book history and university history in the Middle Ages.

This publication is GPRC-labeled (Guaranteed Peer-Reviewed Content).

Critical study

The Editions and Manuscripts
§ 1. The Editions
§ 2. The Manuscripts

The Text Examined Exteriorly: Historical and Codicological Elements Used For the Establishment of the Text
§ 1. The Authorship and Date of the Summa, art. 63­67
§ 2. The Summa, art. 63­67: Distributed by Means of Two Successive Exemplars by the University in Paris
A. The First Parisian University Exemplar
B. The Second Parisian University Exemplar

The Text Examined Interiorly: The Relationships Among the Manuscripts, Established by a General Test Collation
§ 1. The Common Accidents
A. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized by the Number of Common Accidents
B. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized Individually
1. Manuscript B“ (Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Borgh. 17)
2. The Group of Manuscripts Dependent upon the First Exemplar of the University in Paris
a. Sub-groups of Manuscripts, which Indicate Possible Common Models Stemming from the First Parisian University Exemplar
1. A possible group of British manuscripts
2. A Group of Vatican Manuscripts Dependent upon the Manuscript Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Vat. lat. 854 (= ms. 12, i.e. I‘)
3. Manuscripts Copied from The Second Parisian University Exemplar xxxiv § 2. The Isolated Accidents

The Selection of Manuscripts to be Collated

The Latin Text of Summa, art. 63­67 *
§ 1. The Second Parisian University Exemplar of *Summa, art. 63­67

§ 2. The Editions of Badius and Scarparius of Summa, art. 63­67

The References in Summa, art. 63­67

The Genesis of the Exemplars, Represented by a Diagram

The Structure of Summa, art. 63­67

Techniques of the Edition
§ 1. Editorial Principles
§ 2. Transcription Conventions

1. In the text Itself
2. In the Critical Apparatus

1. In the Critical Apparatus
2. In the Apparatus of Citations

Sigla of the Manuscripts and Abbreviations of the Editions


Summa, art. 63-67

Art. 63: De tribus generibus relationum communium
q. 1: Utrum habitudo communium relationum differat ab aliis in aliis duobus generibus relationum
q. 2: Utrum relationes communes differant ab aliis secundum rem aut secundum rationem
q. 3: Utrum relationes communes distinguantur ab aliis secundum genus aut secundum speciem

Art. 64: De comparatione relationum communium inter se
q. 1: Utrum relationes communes inter se differant
q. 2: Utrum genera relationum communium differant inter se secundum rem an secundum rationem
q. 3: Utrum relationes communes distinguantur inter se secundum genera aut secundum species
q. 4: Utrum illae quae sunt in eodem genere secundum rem secundum tres modos relationum communium differant specie aut genere ab illis quae sunt in eisdem secundum rationem

Art. 65: De relationibus communibus in comparatione ad sua principia
q. 1: Utrum omnes relationes communes causentur ab uno et multo
q. 2: Utrum relationes communes quae causantur ab uno, scilicet idem, aequale et simile, uniformiter causentur ab uno; et contraria eorum, scilicet diversum, inaequale et dissimile, a multo
q. 3: Utrum idem, aequale et simile inter se comparata uniformiter causentur ab uno, et econtra sua contraria a multo

Art. 66: De relationibus communibus in comparatione ad sua principia fundamentalia, cuiusmodi sunt substantia, quantitas et qualitas
q. 1: Utrum in substantia, quantitate et qualitate habeat fundari omne genus relationis
q. 2: Utrum identitas, aequalitas et similitudo fundentur in rebus trium praedicamentorum absolutorum
q. 3: Utrum relationes communes fundentur in substantia, quantitate et qualitate
q. 4: Utrum singulum genus relationum communium in singulo dictorum trium praedicamentorum habeat fundari
q. 5: Utrum super penitus idem numero possint fundari relationes communes diversorum generum relationum

Art. 67: De habitudinibus relationum communium in comparatione ad subiecta relata per illas
q. 1: Utrum relata relatione communi sint semper alia et alia
q. 2: Utrum relata uniformiter sint alia et alia in singulis rebus et in singulis relationum generibus
q. 3: Utrum in qualibet habitudine relationum communium relationes extremae sint aliae ab invicem
q. 4: Utrum relata uniformiter sint alia ab invicem in singulis rebus et in singulis relationum communium generibus

1. Works cited by Henry (and by the editors in the apparatus)
2. Onomastic table
3. Manuscripts cited
4. Quoted publications
5. Table of photographs
6. Table of contents

Format: Text edition - hardback

Size: 234 × 156 mm

280 pages

ISBN: 9789462703926

Publication: February 27, 2024

Series: Ancient and Medieval Philosophy - Series 2: Henrici de Gandavo Opera Omnia 34

Languages: English

Bernd Goehring is a member of the Scotistic Commission of America, centered at the Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame.
Girard J. Etzkorn is a former professor emeritus at St. Bonaventure University. He died in 2023.
Gordon A. Wilson is professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina. He is the general coordinator of the Leuven edition of the 'Opera omnia' of Henry of Ghent.