Summa (Quaestiones ordinariae) art. LX-LXII

Henry of Ghent (Author), Gordon Wilson (Editor), Girard Etzkorn (Editor), Bernd Goehring (Editor), Linda N. Etzkorn (Assisted by),

Series: Ancient and Medieval Philosophy - Series 2: Henrici de Gandavo Opera Omnia 33

Category: Philosophy

Language: English

DOI: 10.11116/9789461662576

ISBN: 9789461662576

Publication date: October 11, 2018

€67.00 (including 6% VAT)

Buy Now
Guaranteed Peer Reviewed Content


This critical edition of Henry of Ghent’s Summa, art. 60–62 deals with the Trinity. This volume should be of interest to those studying theology, philosophy, and book distribution in the Middle Ages, as well as to scholars of (medieval) teaching at the university in Paris.

Critical edition of articles 60–62 of Henry’s Summa devoted to the Trinity
Henry of Ghent was the most important thinker of the last quarter of the 13th century and his works were influential not only in his lifetime, but also in the following century and into the Renaissance.

This critical edition of Henry of Ghent’s Summa, art. 60–62 deals with the Trinity. The respective articles are based upon this scholastic philosopher’s lectures in the theology faculty at the university in Paris and can be dated to slightly after Advent 1290. For Henry and his contemporaries, Trinitarian analysis entailed both metaphysical and epistemological issues which required serious thought and in these articles Henry treats active spiration, a property common to the Father and Son; properties proper to the Holy Spirit; and properties common to all the persons of the Trinity, namely identity, equality, and similitude.

Articles 60–62 were distributed by the university in Paris by means of two successive exemplars divided into peciae. Manuscripts copied from each have survived and the text of the critical edition has been established based upon the reconstructed text of these two exemplars. Reconstructing the first exemplar was complicated by the fact that one manuscript contains replacement peciae of the first exemplar and these may have been the models for other manuscript copies.

This volume should be of interest to those studying theology, philosophy, and book distribution in the Middle Ages, as well as to scholars of (medieval) teaching at the university in Paris.

This publication is GPRC-labeled (Guaranteed Peer-Reviewed Content).


Critical study

The Editions and Manuscripts
§1. The Editions
§2. The Manuscripts

The Text Examined Exteriorly: Historical and Codicological Elements Used For the Establishment of the Text
§1. The Authorship and Date of the Summa, art. 60-62
§2. The Summa, art. 60-62: Distributed by Means of Two Successive Exemplars by the University in Paris
A. The First Parisian University Exemplar
B. The Second Parisian University Exemplar

The Text Examined Interiorly: The Relationships Among the Manuscripts, Established by a General Test Collation
§1. The Common Accidents
A. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized by the Number of Common Accidents
B. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized Individually
1. Manuscript B” (Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Borgh. 17)
2. The Group of Manuscripts Dependent upon the First Exemplar of the University in Paris
3. A Group of Manuscripts, which for Certain Peciae, Indicates a Common Model Stemming from the First Parisian University Exemplar
4. A Group of Vatican Manuscripts Dependent upon the Manuscript Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Vat. lat. 854 (= ms. 16, i.e. I’)
5. The Second Parisian University Exemplar
§2. The Isolated Accidents

Manuscript 11 (Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Borghese 17 (=B”) and the First Parisian University Exemplar

Summa, art. 60-62: A Text Stemming From a Parisian University Exemplar Tradition
§1. The Individual Peciae of Articles 60-62 in Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Borghese 17 (= ms. 11, i.e. B”)
§2. The Second Parisian University Exemplar
§3. The Edition of Badius
§4. The Edition of Scarparius

The References in Summa, art. 60-62

The Genesis of the Exemplars, Represented by a Diagram

Techniques of the Edition
§1. Editorial Principles
§2. Transcription Conventions

1. In the text Itself
2. In the Critical Apparatus

1. In the Critical Apparatus
2. In the Apparatus of Citations

Sigla of the Manuscripts and Abbreviations of the Editions


SUMMA, art. 60-62

Art. 60: De proprietate communi Patri et Filio, quae est spiratio activa
q. 1 Utrum principium elicitivum Spiritus Sancti sint ambo simul natura et voluntas in Patre et Filio
q. 2 Utrum spiratio activa realiter distincta sit et diversa a generatione
q. 3 Utrum in divinis sit aliquis ordo naturae inter generationem et spirationem
q. 4 Utrum generatio sit principalior productio quam spiratio
q. 5 Utrum spiratio activa sit proprietas constitutiva alicuius personae
q. 6 Utrum spiratio activa sit proprietas sive actio unius spiratoris
q. 7 Utrum plures spirantes sint unum principium spirandi
q. 8 Utrum aliquis spirantium habeat rationem spirativam ab alio
q. 9 Utrum unus spirantium spiret principalius quam alter
q. 10 Utrum spirantes habeant aliquam aliam proprietatem communem quam spirationem activam

Art. 61: De proprietatibus propriis Spiritui Sancto
q. 1 Utrum ‘Spiritus’ sit nomen personae institutum a proprietate personali
q. 2 Utrum spirari sit proprium Spiritui Sancto
q. 3 Utrum Spiritui Sancto sit aliqua alia proprietas quam spirari
q. 4 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus spiretur a Patre in Filium et e converso
q. 5 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus in eo quod spiratur procedat ut amor
q. 6 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus procedat ut amor de amore, an sit amor de notitia
q. 7 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus sit amor quo Pater et Filius diligunt se et alia
q. 8 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus procedat ut donum
q. 9 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus sit donum quo cetera donantur
q. 10 Utrum Spiritus Sanctus datur ut donum a Patre et Filio

Art. 62: De proprietatibus quae pertinent in divinis ad relationes communes quae consequuntur divinas personas distinctas et in esse constitutas, cuiusmodi sunt identitas, aequalitas et similitudo
q. 1 Utrum in divinis sint aliquae relationes communes
q. 2 Utrum sint plures relationes communes secundum genera tam in divinis quam in creaturis
q. 3 Utrum tam in divinis quam in creaturis sint tantum tria genera relationum communium
q. 4 Utrum relationes communes in creaturis sint relationes secundum rem an secundum rationem

1. Works cited by Henry (and by the editors in the apparatus)
2. Onomastic table
3. Manuscripts cited
4. Quoted publications
5. Table of photographs
6. Table of contents

Henry of Ghent

Gordon Wilson

Gordon A. Wilson is professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina. He is the general coordinator of the Leuven edition of the 'Opera omnia' of Henry of Ghent.

Girard Etzkorn

Girard J. Etzkorn is a former professor emeritus at St. Bonaventure University. He died in 2023.

Bernd Goehring

Bernd Goehring is a member of the Scotistic Commission of America, centered at the Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame.

This volume is highly recommended for any scholar of Henry of Ghent, medieval Trinitarian theology—or Trinitarian theology in general—textual critical analysis, or all of the above. It not only fits in splendidly with the ongoing series of critical editions of the various articles that make up Henry of Ghent’s Summa, but, more importantly, it also stands alone as a volume of great value for medieval Trinitarian theology. Here’s hoping it won’t be too long before the release of the next volume.Daniel M. Garland, Reading Religion

The publication of a new volume in the Series 'Henrici de Gandavo Opera omnia', the critical edition of Henry of Ghent's 'Articles' 60-62 of his 'Summa', is undoubtedly of great interest not only for those who focus on Henry's thought, but also for specialists in medieval philosophy, especially the late 13th-century scholasticism. Since the present questions deal with specific problems related to the idea of the divine Trinity, it is obvious that Henry's discussion contains insights that are at both philosophically and theologically interesting.
Jules Janssens, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 2020 nr 4

Related titles