Questiones super I-VII libros Politicorum

A Critical Edition and Study

Peter of Auvergne and edited by Marco Toste

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The most influential question-commentary on the Politics in the Middle Ages

This volume is the first complete critical edition of Peter of Auvergne’s Questiones super I-VII libros Politicorum. The Questiones was produced at the Faculty of Arts of Paris sometime between late 1291 and 1296 and is the earliest surviving commentary in question form on Aristotle’s Politics. As the introduction explains, the Questiones was philosophically innovative and became the most influential question commentary on the Politics in the Middle Ages. The volume also includes a critical edition of an earlier oral report (reportatio) of Peter’s teaching on Books I-II and part of III which became the basis for those sections of the Questiones.

This volume is of interest to scholars of medieval philosophy and the history of political thought and is a reference point for future research on the medieval reception of Aristotle’s Politics and medieval Aristotelian practical philosophy more broadly.

This publication is GPRC-labeled (Guaranteed Peer-Reviewed Content).


Foreword xvii

Part I – Interpretative Study 1

Introduction 3

1. Introducing the Questiones super I-VII libros Politicorum and its Significance 3

2. The Place of Peter of Auvergne in Medieval Philosophy 8

3. The Context of the Questiones: Its Institutional Setting 13

4. The Text Commented on: The Latin Translation of Aristotle’s Politics 19

5. The Questiones and the Medieval Reception of the Politics 32

6. The Approach of This Study and Edition 44

Chapter 1 – Authorship 49

1. The Questiones and Peter’s Other Works 51

1.1. The Infinite 51

1.2. Privation 62

1.3. Natural Place and Celestial Influence 66

1.4. Teleology 73

2. The Questiones and the Scriptum 76

2.1. The Ruler–Subject Relationship in Terms of the Mover–Moved 77

2.2. Teleology 78

2.3. Hylomorphism 80

2.4. The Definition of Citizen 81

2.5. The Difference between a Free Man and a Slave 85

2.6. The Two Kinds of Multitude 87

2.7. The Question of Ostracism 88

2.8. Optimus Vir vs. Law 90

2.9. Hereditary vs. Elected Ruler 92

2.10. The Subject Matter of the Science of Politics: Book IV, Chapter 1 95

2.11. The Two Kinds of Office 96

2.12. Tyranny as an ‘Involuntary’ Regime 98

2.13. Nobility of Birth and Goodness Transmitted from Parents to

Children 99

VIII Table of Contents

2.14. The Naturalness of Agriculture and the Farmers as the ‘Best

Multitude’ for Democracy 102

2.15. Celestial and Environmental Influence on Human Behaviour 103

2.16. Similar Terminology and Similar Use of the Same Source 110

Chapter 2 – Date 119

1. The Questiones Within Peter’s Output 119

2. The Temporal Priority of the Scriptum over the Questiones 121

3. The Questiones and Views of Theologians at Paris 128

3.1. Henry of Ghent’s Quodlibeta (1286 and 1288) 128

3.2. James of Viterbo (1291) 130

3.3. Peter’s Quodlibeta and the Criticism of Godfrey of Fontaines

(Early 1290s) 132

3.4. Giles of Rome (Late 1291) 139

3.5. Henry of Ghent’s Summa (Between 1281 and 1291) 142

4. Conclusions 143

Chapter 3 – The Relationship between the Questiones and B, ff. 60ra-68rb 145

1. The Questiones, B and Peter’s Oral Lectures 147

2. Analysis of B 151

2.1. Style and Use of Sources 151

2.2. B is Not an Abbreviatio 157

2.3. B is a Reportatio (Further Evidence) 159

3. The Questions Shared by B and the Questiones: A Reportatio and its

Editing 164

4. The Questions Specific to Each Text 182

4.1. The Questions Contained Only in the Questiones 183

4.2. The Questions Contained Only in B 187

5. A Final Note About B: Its Date and Circulation 192

Chapter 4 – Sources 195

1. The Nicomachean Ethics 197

2. ‘Eustratius’ 198

3. Proclus and Neoplatonism 202

4. Sextus Empiricus 204

5. Aquinas’ Long Shadow 206

6. Previous Commentaries on the Politics 211

6.1. Albert the Great 211

6.2. Aquinas 215

7. Giles of Rome 217

8. Henry of Ghent 220

Table of Contents IX

Chapter 5 – The Structure and Content of the Questiones and the

Rationale of its Tabula Quaestionum 223

1. Book I 228

2. Book II 256

3. Book III 268

4. Book IV 285

5. Book V 291

6. Book VI 302

7. Book VII 306

8. Conclusions 310

Chapter 6 – Nachleben 313

Chapter 7 – Introduction to the Critical Editions 323

1. Principles of Edition 323

2. P as the Base Manuscript 324

3. Relation between the Manuscripts 326

4. Orthography 328

5. Conjectures and Emendations 332

6. Apparatus 333

7. Apparatus Fontium 334

8. Other Interventions 335

9. The Edition of the Reportatio 335

10. Conspectus Abbreviationum 337

11. Conspectus Signorum 337

Part II – Editions 339

Petri de Alvernia Questiones super I-VII libros Politicorum 341

Prohemium 343

Liber I 351

1. Circa istum librum primo potest queri de subiecto huius scientie, quia

subiectum in scientia primum est in cognitione et ex cognitione eius

dependet scientia omnium aliorum que in scientia inquiruntur, et

illud est causa omnium. Queritur ergo primo utrum subiectum in hac

scientia sit ciuitas ipsa uel bonum agibile ab homine ciuile 351

2. Vtrum scientia speculatiua et practica differant ratione et specie 354

3. Vtrum ista scientia sit speculatiua uel practica 362

4. Vtrum ista scientia sit principalissima aliarum 363

X Table of Contents

5. Vtrum omnis communicatio sit boni gratia 368

6. Vtrum ciuitas sit gratia principalissimi boni, ut dicit Philosophus 371

7. Vtrum combinatio maris et femine sit a natura 373

8. Vtrum mulier possit esse serua 380

9. Vtrum homo sit animal ciuile a natura 384

10. Vtrum seruus sit organum 390

11. Vtrum seruus, id quod est, domini sit 393

12. Vtrum ubicumque est coniunctio aliquorum in unum sit unum

principans natura et aliud seruum et subiectum 395

13. Vtrum aliquis sit seruus a natura 398

14. Vtrum corpora seruorum et liberorum naturaliter sint differentia 403

15. Vtrum ille qui habundat in aliquo bono sit naturaliter dominus eius

qui deficit in illo bono 405

16. Vtrum naturaliter bonus generet bonum et seruus seruum, sicut dicit

Philosophus 407

17. Vtrum serui ad dominum sit amicitia 411

18. Vtrum principatus yconomicus, despoticus et politicus differant

specie uel sint idem 413

19. Vtrum ex diuersitate cibi causetur distinctio uitarum 415

20. Vtrum natura faciat omnia animalia et plantas propter hominem 419

21. Vtrum possessiua sit pars yconomice 422

22. Vtrum appetitus diuitiarum naturalium sit infinitus 424

23. Vtrum, sicut dicit Philosophus, cuilibet rei possesse sit duplex usus 426

24. Vtrum multitudo pecuniarum sint uere diuitie 428

25. Vtrum appetitus finis sit infinitus 430

26. Vtrum appetitus diuitiarum artificialium sit infinitus 434

27. Vtrum usus campsorie possit esse secundum ordinem iustitie 435

28. An pro usu pecunie ille qui concedit possit recipere aliquid 439

29. Vtrum serui inquantum talis oportet esse aliquam uirtutem 442

30. An domini et serui sit una uirtus secundum rationem 444

31. Vtrum artificem inquantum huiusmodi oportet habere uirtutem 447

Liber II 451

1. Vtrum ciuitas sit una 451

2. Vtrum ciuitatem optimum sit esse quam maxime unam 454

3. Vtrum illud quod est commune minime curetur 456

4. Vtrum expediens sit ciuitati mulieres et pueros esse communes, sicut

soluit Plato 458

5. Vtrum commisceri parentibus filios sit turpe secundum naturam et

secundum se 462

6. Vtrum possessiones ciuitatis debent esse communes 465

Table of Contents XI

7. Vtrum expediat ciuitati mulieres ordinare ad bella 469

8. Vtrum lex sit aliquid ad rationem pertinens 472

9. Vtrum lex ordinetur in finem communem 474

10. Vtrum legislatorem in constituendo legem oportet inspicere ad

homines et loca 476

11. De opinione Fellee, utrum necessarium sit politicum regulare

possessiones 477

12. Vtrum expediat ciuitati possessiones esse equales 479

13. Vtrum magis expediat politico ordinare concupiscentiam quam

possessiones 482

14. Vtrum permittendum sit ciues ditari quantumcumque contingit et

sine termino 484

15. Vtrum terminus diuitiarum accipiendus sit in comparatione ad

aliquod extrinsecum 486

16. Vtrum lex sit mutabilis 488

17. Vtrum lex sit mutanda meliore superueniente 490

18. Vtrum seruorum sit aliqua disciplina 493

19. Vtrum exercitium in uita militari sit principium multarum uirtutum 495

Liber III 499

1. Vtrum considerantem de politia oportet considerare prius de ciuitate 499

2. Vtrum considerantem de ciuitate oportet prius considerare de ciue,

sicut dicit Philosophus 501

3. Vtrum sit ciuis simpliciter qui potest participare principatu

consiliatiuo uel iudicatiuo 504

4. Vtrum ciuis unius rationis sit in omni politia 509

5. Vtrum ciuitas a principio usque ad finem maneat eadem numero 510

6. Vtrum ciuis inquantum huiusmodi per se sit aliqua uirtus 517

7. Vtrum ciuis sit una uirtus secundum omnem politiam 520

8. Vtrum ciuis studiosi et uiri optimi sit eadem uirtus 521

9. Vtrum principans in principatu despotico intendat bonum proprium

uel bonum commune sibi et seruo 523

10. Vtrum principans in principatu yconomico intendat bonum subditorum 526

11. Vtrum politie distinguantur secundum distinctionem finis 528

12. Vtrum secundum distinctionem principantium conueniat politias

distingui 529

13. Vtrum politie sint multe 532

14. Vtrum homines ut in pluribus sint praui iudices de se ipsis, ut dicit

Philosophus 535

15. Vtrum melius sit principari paucos uirtuosos uel multitudinem in

ciuitate 538

XII Table of Contents

16. Vtrum oportet multitudinem principari principatu maximo in ciuitate

bene ordinata 541

17. Vtrum ciuitati expediat multitudinem eligere et corrigere principem et

utrum hoc iustum sit 544

18. Vtrum principatus debeat distribui secundum dignitatem et

excellentiam diuitiarum 546

19. Vtrum in distributione principatus debeat attendi ad excellentiam

ingenuitatis, ut secundum hoc distribuatur 549

20. Vtrum distribuendus sit principatus secundum excellentiam potentie 551

21. Vtrum aliquis excedens omnes alios in aliquo bono sit ponendus esse

non ciuis 554

22. Vtrum melius sit ciuitatem regi optimo uiro uel legibus 559

23. De sufficientia modorum regni quibus distinguitur 562

24. Vtrum, in quibus lex non determinat, melius sit ciuitatem regi

pluribus uel uno 563

25. Vtrum melius sit regem uel principem assumi per generationem uel

electionem 566

26. Vtrum melius sit ciuitatem regi uno uel pluribus 569

Liber IV 575

1. Vtrum huius scientie sit considerare que sit optima politia, ut dicit

Philosophus in littera 575

2. Vtrum politicus debeat considerare de legibus 578

3. Vtrum tirannis sit pessima politiarum, ut dicit Philosophus 581

4. Vtrum politie distinguantur secundum distinctionem partium ciuitatis 584

5. Vtrum adulari sit uitium 588

6. Vtrum adulatores acceptentur et diligantur apud monarchas et apud

populares 591

7. Vtrum modus democratie ubi monarchizat totus populus secundum

sententiam, et non secundum leges, sit politia simpliciter 593

8. Vtrum possibile sit ciuitatem aliquam uiuere secundum politiam

unam et obseruare leges alterius politie 597

9. Vtrum politia, que alio nomine dicitur tymocratia, mixta sit ex

democratia et oligarchia 599

10. Vtrum ista politia sit recta et bona 602

11. Vtrum nobilitas sit uirtus 604

12. Vtrum nobilitas sit uirtus generis 607

13. Vtrum nobilitas ab ignobili incipiat 610

14. Vtrum nobilitas quanto magis protenditur sit maior 613

Table of Contents XIII

Liber V 617

1. Consequenter queritur circa 5um Politicorum. Et quia ibi intendit

Philosophus quod dissensio est corruptio ciuitatis, ideo primo, ad

euidentiam seditionis, queritur de opposito eius, scilicet de pace, et

queritur utrum pax sit finis ciuitatis 617

2. Vtrum amicitia sit causa pacis 620

3. Vtrum dissensio opponatur paci 623

4. Vtrum appetitus sit causa dissensionis 625

5. Vtrum dissimilitudo sit causa dissensionis 628

6. Vtrum locus sit causa dissensionis 630

7. Vtrum causa saluationis politie sit pax 634

8. Vtrum dissensio inter insignes et maiores ciuitatis de facili inualescat 636

9. De quodam uerbo Philosophi, qui dicit quod communis timor

congregat etiam separatissimos; circa quod primo queritur utrum

timor sit passio 638

10. Vtrum timor communis aggreget separatissimos 641

11. Vtrum ad recte principandum exigatur scientia in principe 643

12. Vtrum ad perfectionem principantis exigatur amor politie 646

13. Vtrum potentia exigatur ad perfectionem principantis 649

14. Posito quod sint duo, quorum unus sit potens et nequam, alius autem

bonus et diligens politiam, quis horum magis eligendus est in principem 650

15. Vtrum tirannis sit politia 652

16. Vtrum tirannis sit politia naturalis 655

17. Vtrum tirannis alicui expediat 658

18. Vtrum tirannis saluetur per contraria, sicut dicit Philosophus 660

Liber VI 663

1. Vtrum agricultura sit naturalis 663

2. Vtrum agricolarum multitudo sit optima 665

3. Vtrum multitudo pastoralis sit melior ad politizandum quam

multitudo que in ciuitate 668

4. Vtrum uiuere inordinate sit delectabilius multis 671

5. Vtrum oligarchia temperata constituatur ex habentibus mediocrem

substantiam 676

6. Vtrum aliquis principatus in ciuitate sit necessarius 678

7. Vtrum necesse sit in ciuitate esse plures principatus 679

8. Vtrum in ciuitate sit unus principatus primus 681

9. Vtrum principatus posteriores et inferiores essentialiter ordinati sint

sub primo 683

XIV Table of Contents

Liber VII 687

1. Consequenter queritur circa 7um Politicorum, ubi Philosophus dicit

uel primo inquirit de felicitate ultima hominis, et queritur utrum illa

felicitas consistat in bonis exterioribus 687

2. Vtrum felicitas consistat in bonis corporis 691

3. Vtrum felicitas consistat in actu uirtutis per se 693

4. Vtrum eadem sit felicitas unius hominis et totius ciuitatis 697

5. Vtrum in actu uirtutis moralis consistat felicitas hominis, felicitas –

inquam – politica 701

6. Vtrum felicitas consistat in actu prudentie qui est principari 705

7. Vtrum felicitas politica potior sit quam speculatiua 710

8. Vtrum ex dispositione regionis aliqui bene uel male politizent 720

9. Vtrum illi qui mediant secundum loca sint optime politizantes 723

Petri de Alvernia Questiones super I-III libros Politicorum (Reportatio) 729

Liber I 731

1. Vtrum ciuitas sit obiectum in politica 731

2. Vtrum ista scientia sit practica 732

3. Vtrum ista scientia sit principalissima 733

4. Vtrum omnis communitas humana sit instituta propter bonum 735

5. Vtrum ciuitas sit instituta gratia boni principalissimi 736

6. Vtrum combinatio maris et femine sit naturalis 738

7. Vtrum mulier sit natura serua 740

8. Vtrum barbari sint naturaliter serui 741

9. Vtrum ciuitas sit secundum naturam 742

10. Vtrum homo sit animal ciuile et sociale natura 743

11. Vtrum sermo insit homini a natura 746

12. Vtrum seruus sit organum domini 747

13. Vtrum ille qui deficit in aliquo bono sit natura seruus uel subiectus ei

qui excedit in illo bono 748

14. Vtrum bonus naturaliter generet bonum 749

15. Vtrum principatus despoticus et yconomicus sint diuersi principatus 750

16. Vtrum uite aliorum animalium ab homine diuersificentur secundum

diuersitatem ciborum 751

17. Vtrum plante et animalia alia ab homine sint facta gratia hominis 753

18. Vtrum possessio naturalis sit pars yconomice 755

19. Vtrum diuitie naturales sint infinite uel earum appetitus sit infinitus 756

20. Vtrum cuiuslibet rei possesse ab homine sit duplex usus 757

21. Vtrum inductio pecunie sit necessaria in ciuitate 759

22. Vtrum multitudo pecunie sint uere diuitie 760

Table of Contents XV

23. Vtrum appetitus finis sit infinitus 761

24. Vtrum appetitus diuitiarum sit infinitus 763

25. Vtrum usus campsorie sit contra iustitiam 764

26. Vtrum accipere aliquid pro usu pecunie accomodate sit contra iustitiam 767

27. Vtrum serui secundum se oporteat esse aliquam uirtutem 768

28. Vtrum principantis et serui sit una uirtus secundum rationem 770

29. Vtrum oporteat artificem habere aliquam uirtutem moralem 772

Liber II 775

1. Queritur utrum ciuitas sit una 775

2. Vtrum optimum sit ciuitatem esse maxime unam 776

3. Vtrum homines magis curent bonum proprium quam commune 778

4. Vtrum bonum sit in ciuitate filios et uxores esse communes 779

5. Vtrum commisceri parentibus carnaliter sit contra naturam 781

6. Habitis autem hiis considerare. Circa istud capitulum queritur utrum

expediat ciuitati possessiones esse communes 783

7. Vtrum expediat mulieres ordinari ad bellum 785

8. Vtrum lex sit aliquid pertinens ad rationem 786

9. Vtrum lex ordinetur in finem communem 787

10. Vtrum legislator instituendo leges debeat inspicere ad homines et loca 789

11. Vtrum necessarium sit politicum regulare possessiones 790

12. Vtrum expediat possessiones ciuibus esse equales 791

13. Vtrum magis expediat ordinare concupiscentias quam possessiones 792

14. Vtrum permittendum sit diuites ditari quantumcumque contingit 794

15. Vtrum terminus diuitiarum sit accipiendus per comparationem ad

aliquid extrinsecum 795

16. Vtrum lex sit mutabilis 796

17. Vtrum lex antiqua sit mutanda meliori superueniente 798

18. Vtrum serui sit aliqua disciplina 799

19. Vtrum exercitium in uita militari sit principium multarum uirtutum 800

Liber III 803

1. Vtrum considerantem de politia oporteat determinare de ciuitate 803

2. Vtrum considerantem de ciuitate oportet primum de ciue considerare 804

3. Vtrum ciuis sit qui potest uti principatu iudicatiuo et consiliatiuo 805

4. Vtrum ciuis per unam rationem dicatur de omni ciue uel in omni politia 807

5. Vtrum ciuitas remaneat una numero a principio usque ad finem 808

6. Vtrum ciuis secundum quod ciuis sit aliqua uirtus 810

7. Vtrum ciuis secundum omnem politiam sit una uirtus 811

8. Vtrum uiri optimi et ciuis studiosi sit una uirtus 812

XVI Table of Contents

9. Vtrum in principatu despotico dominus intendit bonum commune sui

et serui uel bonum proprium 814

10. Vtrum princeps in principatu yconomico intendat per se bonum

subditorum 815

11. Vtrum politia distinguatur secundum distinctionem finis 817

12. Vtrum politie distinguantur secundum distinctionem principatuum 818

13. Vtrum sint plures politie 820

14. Vtrum aliqui praue iudicent de se ipsis 822

15. Vtrum melius sit multitudinem quam paucos uirtuosos principari 824

16. Vtrum in principatu summo oporteat principari multitudinem 826

17. Vtrum expediat multitudinem attingere ad electionem principis et

correctionem 828

18. Vtrum principatus sint distribuendi secundum dignitatem diuitiarum 829

19. Vtrum in distributione principatus oporteat inspicere ad ingenuitatem 832

Bibliography 835

Manuscripts 835

Primary Printed Sources 836

Secondary Literature 847

Indices 865

1. Study 865

Index Codicum Manuscriptorum 865

Index Nominum (– 1800) 867

Index Nominum (1800 –) 870

2. Editions 874

Index Locorum (Questiones) 874

Index Locorum (Reportatio) 898

 

Format: Text edition - hardback

Size: 234 × 156 mm

920 pages

ISBN: 9789462703186

Publication: December 15, 2022

Series: Ancient and Medieval Philosophy - Series 1 61

Languages: English

Marco Toste is a research fellow at the Institute for Philosophical Studies of the University of Coimbra.