Summa (Quaestiones ordinariae) art. LIII-LV

Henry of Ghent and edited by Gordon Wilson and Girard Etzkorn

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Critical study of the ‘second part’ of Henry’s Summa devoted to the Persons of the Trinity
Henry of Ghent’s Summa, art. 53-55, was composed shortly after Christmas of 1281, at the height of Henry’s teaching career in the Theology Faculty at the University in Paris. These questions, which begin the ‘second part’ of his Summa, are devoted to the Persons of the Trinity. They contain Henry’s philosophical analyses of the theoretical concepts personrelation, and universals.
The text has been reconstructed based upon manuscripts copied from a first and second Parisian university exemplar. In the critical study that precedes the Latin text, the editors argue that the manuscript, Biblioteca VATICANA, Borghese 17, which contains the texts of these articles and which has, in the latter part of this manuscript, many of the features of an exemplar divided into pecia, could not have been the exemplar divided into pecia for these particular articles.
The volume concludes with the typical tables. 

This publication is GPRC-labeled (Guaranteed Peer-Reviewed Content).

Critical Study
The Editions and Manuscripts
The Editions
The Manuscripts
The Text Examined Exteriorly: Historical and Codicological Elements Used For the Establishment of the Text
§1. The Authorship and Date of Summa, art. 53-55
§2. Summa, art. 53-55: Distributed Means of Two Successive Exemplars by the University in Paris
A. The First University Exemplar
B. The Second University Exemplar

The Text Examined Interiorly: The Relationships Among the Manuscripts, Established by a General Test Collation
§1. The Common Accidents
A. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized by the Number of Common Accidents
B. The Groups of Manuscripts Characterized Individually
1. Manuscript B” (Bibl. Vaticana, Borgh. 17)
2. The Group of Manuscripts Dependent upon the First Exemplar of the University in Paris
3. A Group of Vatican Manuscripts Dependent upon the Manuscript Vat, Vat. lat. 854 (= ms. 16, i.e. I’)
4. The Second Parisian University Exemplar
§2. The Isolated Accidents
Manuscript 13 (Biblioteca Vaticana, ms. Borghese 17) (=B”) and the First Parisian University Exemplar

Summa, art. 53-55: A Text Stemming From a Parisian University Exemplar Tradition
§1. The Reconstruction of the Texts of the Two Exemplars
§2. A Comparison of the Texts of the First and Second Exemplars of Articles 53-55
A. The First Parisian Exemplar Compared to the Second Parisian University Exemplar
B. The Manuscript Brussel/Bruxelles, Koninklijke Biblioteek/ Bibliothèque Royale IV 1202 (=ms. 2, i.e. E’): Its Relation to the First and Second Parisian Exemplars

The References in Summa, art. 53-55

Previous Editions of the Summa, art. 53-55

The Genesis of the Exemplars, Represented by a Diagram

Techniques of the Edition
§1. The Establishment of the Latin text
§2. The Conventions Used in the Latin Text

1. In the Text Itself
2. In the Critical Apparatus

1. In the Critical Apparatus
2. In the Apparatus of Citations
Sigla of the Manuscripts and the Abbreviations of the Editions


Summa, art. 53-54

art. 53: De modo essendi personas in Deo
q. 1 Utrum sit ponere personam esse in Deo
q. 2 Utrum persona habeat esse in Deo proprie an transsumptive
q. 3 Utrum persona univoce et eadem ratione habeat esse in Deo et in creaturis an aequivoce et secundum rationes diversas
q. 4 Utrum persona sit seu habeat esse in Deo secundum substantiam an secundum relationem
q. 5 Utrum persona in Deo significet rem, substantiae scilicet aut relationis, an intentionem tantum
q. 6 Utrum aliqua persona penitus absoluta seu suppositum absolutum habeat esse in divinis
q. 7 Utrum persona in Deo significet aliquid commune
q. 8 Utrum sint plures personae in Deo
q. 9 Utrum in Deo sint tres personae et non plures nec pauciores
q. 10 Utrum una persona habeat esse in alia mutuo et eodem modo

art. 54: De modo emanandi unam personam divinam ab alia
q. 1 Utrum in divinis sit ponere aliquam personam quae non sit ab alia emanans
q. 2 Utrum persona non emanans ab alia in divinis sit tantum unica
q. 3 Utrum ab illa persona in divinis quae non emanat ab alia eman et aliqua alia
q. 4 Utrum ab illa persona quae in divinis non est ab alia emanent plures aliae quam una
q. 5 Utrum personae duae quae emanant ab illa quae non est ab alia emanent ab ea aeque primo, principaliter et immediate
q. 6 Utrum personarum emanantium ab illa quae non est ab alia, una earum emanet a reliqua
q. 7 Utrum persona quae communiter emanat ab illa quae non est ab alia et ab illa quae est ab alia, ut Spiritus Sanctus a Patre et Filio, emanet ab eis aeque primo, principaliter et eodem modo
q. 8 Utrum a qualibet dictarum trium personarum emanet aliqua alia
q. 9 Utrum actus emanantionum notionales generandi et spirandi sunt quaedam intelligere et velle sive quidam actus intelligendi et volendi
q. 10 Utrum emanationes actuum notionalium generandi et spirandi fundentur in actibus esentialibus intelligendi et volendi quasi praesupponentes illos

art. 55: De proprietatibus personarum in generali secundum se
q. 1 Utrum in personis divinis sit ponere proprietates personarum
q. 2 Utrum in personis divinis sit ponere plures proprietates personarum
q. 3 Utrum in personis divinis sit ponere tantum quinque proprietates
q. 4 Utrum in Deo omnes proprietates sint notionales
q. 5 Utrum notiones sive proprietates in Deo sint relationes
q. 6 Utrum proprietates in Deo sint relationes reales


1. Works cited by Henry (and by the editors in the apparatus)
2. Onomastic table
3. Manuscripts cited
4. Quoted publications
5. Table of photographs
6. Table of contents

Format: Text edition - hardback

Size: 240 × 160 × 25 mm

400 pages

ISBN: 9789462700048

Publication: July 10, 2014

Series: Ancient and Medieval Philosophy - Series 2: Henrici de Gandavo Opera Omnia 31

Languages: English

Stock item number: 92132

Girard J. Etzkorn is a former professor emeritus at St. Bonaventure University. He died in 2023.
Gordon A. Wilson is professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina. He is the general coordinator of the Leuven edition of the 'Opera omnia' of Henry of Ghent.